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The Clipper chip is notable in the history of cryptography for many reasons. First, it was designed for civilian used secure phones. Secondly, it was designed to use a very specific symmetric cipher. Which one of the following was originally designed to provide built-in cryptography for the Clipper chip?

  • A. Blowfish
  • B. Twofish
  • C. Serpent
  • D. Skipjack

Answer: D



The Clipper chip was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) as an encryption device that secured "voice and data messages" with a built-in backdoor that was intended to "allow Federal, State, and local law enforcement officials the ability to decode intercepted voice and data transmissions.". It was intended to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. Introduced in 1993, it was entirely defunct by 1996.

he Clipper chip used a data encryption algorithm called Skipjack to transmit information and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange-algorithm to distribute the cryptokeys between the peers. Skipjack was invented by the National Security Agency of the U.S. Government; this algorithm was initially classified SECRET, which prevented it from being subjected to peer review from the encryption research community. The government did state that it used an 80-bit key, that the algorithm was symmetric, and that it was similar to the DES algorithm. The Skipjack algorithm was declassified and published by the NSA on June 24, 1998. The initial cost of the chips was said to be $16 (unprogrammed) or $26 (programmed), with its logic designed by Mykotronx, and fabricated by VLSI Technology, Inc (see the VLSI logo on the image on this page).


What must occur in order for a cipher to be considered 'broken'?

  • A. Decoding the key
  • B. Uncovering the algorithm used
  • C. Rendering the cipher no longer useable
  • D. Finding any method that is more efficient than brute force

Answer: D


Finding any method that is more efficient than brute force

Bruce Schneier notes that even computationally impractical attacks can be considered breaks: "Breaking a cipher simply means finding a weakness in the cipher that can be exploited with a complexity less than brute force."


MD5 can best be described as which one of the following?

  • A. Hashing algorithm
  • B. Asymmetric algorithm
  • C. Symmetric algorithm
  • D. Digital signature

Answer: A


Hashing algorithm

The MD5 message-digest algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. Although MD5 was initially designed to be used as a cryptographic hash function, it has been found to suffer from extensive vulnerabilities. It can still be used as a checksum to verify data integrity, but only against unintentional corruption. It remains suitable for other non-cryptographic purposes, for example for determining the partition for a particular key in a partitioned database.


What is Kerchoff's principle?

  • A. Only the key needs to be secret, not the actual algorithm
  • B. A minimum of 15 rounds is needed for a Feistel cipher to be secure
  • C. A minimum key size of 256 bits is necessary for security
  • D. Both algorithm and key should be kept secret

Answer: A


Only the key needs to be secret, not the actual algorithm

Kerckhoffs's principle of cryptography was stated by Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the 19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.


Numbers that have no factors in common with another.

  • A. Fibonacci Numbers
  • B. Even Numbers
  • C. Co-prime numbers
  • D. Mersenne Primes

Answer: C


Correct answers: Co-prime numbers

Two integers a and b are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime if the only positive integer (factor) that evenly divides both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides one of a or b does not divide the other. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (gcd) being 1.

The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime. The numbers 14 and 25 are coprime, since 1 is their only common divisor. On the other hand, 14 and 21 are not coprime, because they are both divisible by 7.

Incorrect answers:

Even Numbers - A formal definition of an even number is that it is an integer of the form n = 2k, where k is an integer; it can then be shown that an odd number is an integer of the form n = 2k + 1 (or alternately, 2k - 1). It is important to realize that the above definition of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2 or 4.201. See the section "Higher mathematics" below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of "numbers" or in other more general settings.

Fibonacci Numbers - commonly denoted F_n, form a sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, such that each number is the sum of the two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1.

Mersenne Primes - is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. That is, it is a prime number of the form M_n = 2^n - 1 for some integer n. They are named after Marin Mersenne, a French Minim friar, who studied them in the early 17th century. If n is a composite number then so is 2^n - 1. Therefore, an equivalent definition of the Mersenne primes is that they are the prime numbers of the form M_p = 2^p - 1 for some prime p.